[A-List] FW: Papal Bulls Burning! / Chronology
JCraven at clark.edu
Thu Oct 7 19:44:39 MDT 2004
*Aloha kakou and guatiao,
Please join us for the annual Papal Bulls Burning, Indigenous People's
Day observation. This year's event in Honolulu will take place on
Friday, October 8 at 5:30 pm in front of the Catholic Diocese of
Honolulu, 1184 Bishop St. (Fort Street Mall). Indigenous peoples and
supporters from around the world are encouraged to organize a small
ceremonial event and symbolically burn or tear-up copies of the May 4,
1493 papal bull "Inter Caetera" in response to the October 12 "Columbus
Day"/"Discoverer's Day" observation. The document can be downloaded from
our website at: http://bullsburning.itgo.com/papbull.htm
Also, please sign the webpage version of the "Appeal to the Vatican and
Pope John Paul II" at: http://www.uctp.org - Click on "Hawai`i."
Below is a copy of the chronology we had been working on at our monthly
meetings. It'll soon be put together in display board form along with
other items (photos, letters, etc.) for public viewing.
CHRONOLOGY OF THE PAPAL BULLS MOVEMENT
*13th Century Crusades Era - King Alfonso X incorporates the Las siete
partidas (seven division of laws) into Castilian law, one division
explicitly referring to the granting of political and territorial
jurisdiction to a monarch by "papal donation."
*January 8, 1455 - The papal bull Romanus Pontifex is issued by Pope
Nicolas V to King Alfonso V of Portugal.
*May 4, 1493 - The papal bull Inter Caetera is issued by Pope Alexander
VI to King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain.
*September 26, 1493 - The papal bull Dudum Siquidem is issued by Pope
Alexander VI. Confirms the bull Inter Caetera, and revokes (revocamus)
all earlier papal grants to Portugal which might give her a claim to
*November 1493 - Indigenous resistance to Inter Caetera begins. The
indigenous peoples on the island of Quisqueya ("Hispaniola") valiantly
resist the Spanish intrusion. The cacike (chieftain) Caonabo leads a
retaliatory military campaign against the thirty-nine Christians left
behind by Columbus at La Navidad after atrocities committed by them. All
thirty-nine are found dead upon Columbus' return. Later, indigenous
Caribbean peoples publically reject the "papal donation" stating the
pope had no right to give what was not his to give.
*June 7, 1494 - Spain and Portugal sign Treaty of Tordesillas based on
the bull Inter Caetera. The Treaty divides the world in half between the
two nations, and is the foundation for subsequent treaties and custom
relating to the Americas.
*June 2, 1537 - Pope Paul III issued the Papal Bull Sublimis Deus, which
supposedly "freed the Indians," and is regarded as "the most important
papal pronouncement on the human condition of the Indians" (Gutirrez,
"Las Casas," 1993). However, as history unequivocally shows, Sublimis
Deus is purely a theoretical act since there would be no need for an
accounting of those declared to be "extinct," nor for the tens of
millions who had been eliminated by the end of the 16th century.
*June 19, 1538 - Pope Paul III revoked Sublimis Deus at the urging of
Spanish Emperor Charles V. However, there is controversy as to whether
the Pope actually revoked Sublimis Deus or the brief Pastorale Officium
of May 29, 1537. Revoked or not, it should be made clear that Sublimis
Deus did not revoke Inter Caetera (Boyle, 1998, 1999).
*1542 - The "New Laws" that had prohibited Indian slavery and banned the
encomienda (slavery system) were revoked.
*1823 - In the Johnson v. McIntosh case, U.S. Chief Justice John
Marshall blatantly inserts language of "discovery" based on the bull
Inter Caetera into the decision.
*1831 - In Cherokee v. Georgia, Justice Marshall rules that the Cherokee
Nation was not a "foreign state" as defined in the U.S. Constitution,
and therefore they could not sue the state of Georgia in the Supreme
Court from usurping the gold on their land.
*1992 - A formal movement to revoke the bull Inter Caetera is initiated
by the Indigenous Law Institute based in the United States.
*1993 - At the Parliament of the World's Religions in Chicago, Illinois,
sixty indigenous delegates draft a Declaration of Vision calling for the
revocation of the bull Inter Caetera.
*October 12, 1997 - An annual papal bulls burning commenced in Honolulu,
Hawai'i calling international attention to the papal bulls issue.
*October 12, 1998 - Over 50 indigenous and human rights advocates gather
in Honolulu to demand the revocation of the bull Inter Caetera, and
called for it to be revoked by the year 2,000, or by the beginning of
the "new millennium".
*November 28, 1998 - Pope John Paul II called "Christianity's 2,000
anniversary a year of mercy," as reported by AP, saying "the church will
seek forgiveness," "atonement," and that he "wants the church to enter
the third millennium with a clear conscience."
*February 19, 1999 - The United Church of Christ, Hawai'i Conference,
passes a resolution which resolves that: "President Paul Sherry on
behalf of the United Church of Christ urges and calls upon people of
conscience in the Roman Catholic hierarchy and in other organized
religions to persuade Pope John Paul II to revoke the Papal Bulls Dum
Diversas of 1452 [Romanus Pontifex of 1455] and Inter Caetera of 1493 by
the year 2,000."
*May 1999 - At the international Hague Appeal for Peace conference, Tony
Castanha (Carib/Boricua) and Steve Newcomb (Shawnee/Lenape) directly
address and call for the revocation of the bull Inter Caetera on both
"Interfaith" and "Root Causes of War/Culture of Peace" panel
*October 2000 - Indigenous Peoples' Delegation (nine delegates) converge
on Italy and the Vatican advocating for the revocation of Inter Caetera.
Delegates meet with official from the Pontifical Council for Justice and
*2001 - Pontifical Historical Commission studies the issue for the first
time and rules that "Inter Caetera is no longer juridically valid."
Kosmos Indigena founded. Continues to call on the Vatican to revoke
Inter Caetera if it is no longer juridically valid.
*October 2003 - Seventh annual papal bulls burning observed in Honolulu,
Hawai`i, as well as other locations around the world. Call is made to
return to Rome in October 2005.
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